Cannabis Terpenes Australia Guide

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Cannabis Ruderalis, on the other hand, contains low amounts of THC and is native to Eastern and Central Europe, as well as Russia. Because of its low THC content, Cannabis Ruderalis is commonly cultivated only for hemp production. Across the world, certain types of flowering plants known as Cannabis have been traditionally cultivated for their recreational, spiritual, and medicinal properties. The term ‘Cannabis’ denotes a genus of plants under the family of ‘Cannabaceae’ – a group of plants that includes both flowering and nonflowering plants.

What Is Cannabis

These seizures can be partial where there is an involuntary movement of a part of the individual’s body or generalized where the entire body experiences these involuntary movements. Analysis of the antioxidant activity of CBD has shown that this natural plant derivative regulates the redox state both directly and indirectly. While CBD directly influences redox system components, it indirectly interacts with molecular targets linked to redox system components. CBD has been shown to reduce these pro-inflammatory changes in the arterial cells due to high blood glucose. Cannabis Indica is generally thought to belong to the Cannabis genus and is cultivated for different purposes.

Pinene has a distinct fir and pine tree smell that gives it a mature smell. Its found to have significant anti-inflammatory benefits that are effective at treating respiratory conditions as it opens up our body’s airways. In this analysis, the marijuana patients were able to identify the terpenes in each of their strain choice and the expected effects. No doubt Cannabis Treatment with regards to the patients, flavonoids play a very promising therapeutic role.

The existence of the other cannabinoids causes the entourage effects as they work in harmony to restore body balance. One of the most common uses of medical marijuana is in relieving pain. The cannabinoids found in weed are effective at providing chronic pain relief.

Studied for its possible therapeutic uses, CBN is being researched more thoroughly. CBN can also be a by-product of oxidization—when THC oxidizes, it converts to CBN. CBG, or cannabigerol, is one of more than 120 known cannabinoids in cannabis. Ongoing research shows that it has promise across a wide range of potential applications. Cannabis is a broad term used to describe the various products derived from the leaves, flowers, and resins of the Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica plants, or hybrids of the two.

How Big Is The Delta

Simply apply Joint Jam, CBD Salve to your areas of pain or to your skin with signs of aging and rub in. This will be absorbed by your body and can begin to offer immediate all-natural pain relief. Our Salt Buzz, CBD Salt Soak and ourBubble Buzz, CBD Bubble Bathalso offer similar effects. application huile de cbd When you begin vaping cannabis you experience the benefits of CBD and any other cannabinoids quickly within a few seconds, and this can lead to relaxing effects without a psychotropic high. Heavy smokers usually find stress relief with tobacco smoking and vaping e-juices.

Free radicals can damage cells, cause illness, and contribute to accelerated aging. The use of CBD oil for pain has been existence since the early 20th century. Its use can be traced to ancient Chinese medical practices. The greatest pleasures surrounding cannabis is the puff-and-pass custom among its users Kush Oil. With the current world wide pandemic, this is a good way the virus could spread. Cannabis users are being cautioned against sharing joints, blunts and bongs while the virus is spreading.

Ksenia is a contributing author to leading fashion, lifestyle and CBD magazines and blogs. You can bump into Ksenia at her favourite cafe in South Kensington where she has written most blogs. Ksenia is a staunch advocate of CBD and its benefits to people. Ksenia is also on the panel of CBD reviewers at CBD Life Mag and Chill Hempire. Her favourite form of CBD are CBD gummies and CBD tinctures. Ksenia is a regular contributor at leading fashion, lifestyle as well as CBD magazines and blogs.

Scientists suggest CBD indirectly influences cannabinoid receptors to regulate inflammation. Researchers propose that CBD activates other brain receptors such as serotonin 1A receptor, vanilloid receptor, and adenosine A2A receptor to control inflammation. THC activates cannabinoid receptors in the brain and body, specifically CB1 and CB2 receptors.

We invest countless hours into the latest scientific research to formulate the most powerful products on the market, utilizing cutting-edge ingredients like CBG and plant-based terpenes. It interacts mildly with the user’s cannabinoid receptors. It works with cannabinoids to do a better job or it reduces barriers to the receptors’ performance.

It is one of the fastest growing biomasses on earth requiring very little to no pesticides and zero herbicides. This makes hemp both easy and inexpensive to mass produce. They were not able to determine the cause of this correlation or whether cannabis use could cause long-term anxiety disorders. Further research is required to understand whether or not it could be causing some anxiety disorders, or people with anxiety disorders have a tendency to use Cannabis. When an individual consumes cannabis, their default mode network, or DMN, slightly deactivates. The DMN “normalizes” your everyday activities and sensations.

The legality of CBD in the U.S.A can be a bit complicated and may depend on different factors. First, it is important to understand that CBD can be extracted from marijuana or the industrial hemp plant. The main reason for the illegality is because of the high concentration of the psychoactive THC that is present in marijuana whose legal limit is capped at just 0.3%.

Cannabinoids: Beyond Thc And Cbd

We try to ensure the best potential high quality CBD products while additionally striving to reduce our ecological footprint. MÜV Shatter, Blue, Transdermal Patches, Pain Relief Cream – all of these and more begin with the extraction of the desired cannabinoids, resulting in a crude extract or oil. Isolating these compounds requires a solvent, one that isolates the beneficial compounds without compromising unstable, less abundant terpenes. As mentioned for 710 Day, MÜV utilizes cold ethanol to create these important extracts.

Ecofibre currently sells two of its existing US manufactured Ananda Hemp products in Australia via the Special Access Scheme (SAS-B) and Authorised Prescribers. Both of these products are widely available in the US and have been sold in all 50 US States for several years. There are currently no TGA approved products on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods that meet the Schedule 3 criteria. Changes in dosage of antipsychotics or benzodiazepines within 1 week prior to randomization and during the study. Changes in dosage of anti-depressives within 4 weeks before randomization and during the study. Current abuse of/dependence on marijuana, current drug abuse, current alcohol abuse.

Their overall use will therefore have to be established for safety and efficacy through further and more comprehensive research. People find it hard to sleep peacefully because of their unstable state of mind. Since the use of CBD helps reduce stress and anxiety, it can equally mean that one can enjoy a peaceful night’s sleep. Studies show that children battling post-traumatic stress disorder have shown immense improvements of up to 70% after using CBD.

“The key message with all new drugs and technology is that there is an ongoing learning process that will continue through the lifetime of the drug,”lead author Dr. Nicholas S. Downing told CNN. Astudy published in 2017 found that nearly a third of all FDA-approved drugs from 2001 to 2010 were later flagged for a safety threat. “The FDA identified certain safety risks, including the potential for liver injury,”the agency wrote. The rise of delta-8 THC has opened the floodgates for other synthetic or non-standard cannabinoids, including THC-O, THCP and HHC, which have all hit the scene over the past year or so.

Some might wish to see credible laboratory testing of their product or the supply material at the very least to actually be satisfied. CBD isolate really doesn’t have much of a noticeable taste, thus it permits the flavors to stand out while providing your daily dose of CBD. The quality of the vape juice appears to be on par with what you’d expect from a well-established CBD brand like CBDfx.

Tinctures can also be a good way to maximize your flavonoid intake, depending on the processing. 2016 study of 40 women found that topical application of Apigenin cream increased skin density and elasticity and reduced wrinkle length and UV damage. While most flavonoids have some degree of antioxidant properties, fighting oxidation is Apigenin’s superpower. Here’s everything you need to know about superpowered Apigenin and what it brings to your favorite cannabis strains.

Cbd Oil Side Effects

For more detailed information, the American Herbal Products Association has published documents with guidance on how cannabis and hemp producers can meet the new Prop 65 requirements. Prop 65 encourages manufacturers to reformulate their products and remove toxic ingredients. While the effects of Prop 65 are generally regarded as a win for consumer rights, some critics have complained that the law has led to over-warning and consumer desensitization.

Pure Hemp Botanicals’ commitment to organic products and a minimalist ingredient list instills confidence in you and causes you to be willing to trust their product. However, they do not offer any independent or internal laboratory testing to confirm the standard and purity of their products or supply material. Pure Hemp Botanicals’ commitment to organic products and a minimalist ingredient list instills confidence in you and causes you to be willing to trust their products. The dosage strength is good for therapeutic use, the product is affordable, and the dropper makes adding it to your preferred vape cartridge convenient, especially if you like to customize your vape flavors.

Terpenes, notably, could presumably be vulnerable to evaporating off when uncovered to excessive warmth. Full and broad-spectrum merchandise are furthermore much less processed, which helps shield a few of hashish’s unstable natural compounds, like terpenes. This course of purifies the oil, leaving purchasers with a wax that is free of harmful substances and psychoactive brokers. While it may be used for a lot of completely completely totally different diseases, it’s especially nice for ache help. The three major kinds of CBD yow will discover on retailer cupboards or on-line are CBD oils, CBD isolates, and CBD wax. These kinds Best Hemp and CBD Sun Screens for Tanning of CBD could possibly be utilized or consumed on their very personal, or they’re furthermore used to make completely totally different CBD merchandise.

Antioxidants are found in substances, such as vitamin C and E, and prevent cell damage from free radicals, which are unstable parts of cells that can cause different kinds of illnesses and speed up aging. Klein says antioxidant supplements offer several benefits to dogs, including slowing the signs of aging, including memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. They may also help reduce inflammation and treat heart disease. Fish oil supplements contain omega-3 fatty acids, which Klein says could improve your dog’s coat quality and shine.

This process, called metabolism, makes energy and the materials needed for growth, reproduction, and maintaining health. They are chemicals found in cannabis, the most notable is phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol , the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis plants. Cannabidiol is another major constituent of the plant and these are just two of at least 144 known different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis all how much cbd oil per plant exhibiting various affects. CBD does not have any psychoactive properties, and therefore CBD oil or extract is considered safe to use on a daily basis. CBD works with the endocannabinoid system, which is responsible for keeping the body in homeostasis. A vaporizer is a delivery system for cannabis consumption that heats dried flower or concentrates to release its cannabinoids and terpenes in the form of a vapour.

There also are concerns about both the quality of CBD oil being produced and its potential side effects, the experts added. The rest of the potential uses — as an antipsychotic, antidepressant or sleep aid “have all been studied in animals, with only one or two examples of studies in humans,” Bonn-Miller said. CBD oil is legal in 30 states where medicinal and/or recreational marijuana is legal, according to Governing magazine. Today, two-in-three adults believe marijuana should be legal, yet one in ten who try it become addicted.

CBD, on the other hand, can be found & legally purchased, even in most states where medical marijuana is not legal. Both have their separate uses and we’ll go over their individual strengths and weaknesses. To understand better why one should be used over the other, it’s helpful to compare their chemical differences.

Last month, Forbes featured astudy from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences that foundhigh doses of CBD brought about liver damage in mice within 24 hours. Many of the animals died or were close to death within three or four days. This is the reason that, according to theprescribing information for Epidiolex, doctors must monitor the liver enzymes of these patients.

These compounds are converted to THC and CBD when they’re heated when the buyer smokes the product. Decarboxylation ensures the edible or topical incorporates THC or CBD compounds, which have huge medical advantages when ingested or applied on the skin. When hashish merchandise are smoked, they are heated by way of combustion or by the use of the vaporization course of .

Once your cannabis is decarboxylated, you’ll be capable of eat it in quite a few methods. As extended as you reap the benefits of the place to purchase cbd gummies near me low heat all through the decarboxylation process, the cannabinoids and terpenes shall be preserved. However, THCA is non-psychoactive and must be decarboxylated for patrons to get the psychoactive outcomes of THC.

Is Cbd Cannabidiol Safe With Heart Medication?

Both CBD and THC are chemically similar to your body’s endocannabinoids. This allows them to interact with your cannabinoid receptors. THC is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis that produces the high sensation. It’s also available in oils, edibles, tinctures, CBD Öl Hanfsamen capsules, and more. The first thing you should know about CBD products is the difference between hemp-derived and whole-plant cannabis-derived CBD. Both hemp and cannabis are subspecies of the cannabaceae plant family, however, there are some distinct differences.

The virus mostly spreads through the hands and so they should watch their cleanliness while holding a bong that others may have held too. Just like anyone else, they are to avoid crowded areas, not to shake hands and leave the masks for ill patients and healthcare providers. If possible also, they are asked to consider working from home. So as they properly wash their hands, they should also reduce stress.

This happened a year ago also with the shaking but not the heart rate. I was more sure I was about die of a heart attack than I was when I totalled my car this summer getting tboned at an intersection. Just an fyi I use to smoke every day all day long for like 8 years the best shit on the planet. If marijuana is legal where you live, it’s important to know that quality control of these products can be uncertain.

Cbd Hemp Seed Faqs

The natural comparison for this is the “vaping” illness outbreak in 2019 which is highly likely to have been caused by illicit cannabis vape cartridges which had been cut with vitamin E acetate. This was done to thicken the mixes and thereby give the impression of purity, but it led to severe lung problems and deaths in people who vaped it. This is almost 80 times higher than their reported quantity. For the vast majority of companies, they either explicitly claim or have a COA on-site showing that they are compliant with the limit of 0.3% for delta-9 THC suggested by the Farm Bill.

The course of helps to activate the CBDA all via the uncooked plant reworking into an energetic CBD. You may furthermore cook dinner dinner your hashish beneath sure temperatures for a while to decarboxylate it. Consult 10 distinction sources and also you’ll discover 10 completely completely totally different strategies for recommendations on the way in which to decarboxylate your marijuana. Marijuana plant provides have to be uncovered to a temperature of a minimum of 220 levels F for about half-hour to be able to assure full decarboxylation.

Ecofibre was the first hemp company to receive IND authorization from the FDA for research. Dr. Capano’s recent clinical trial concluded that CBD hemp extract could reduce opioid use and improve quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients. Subjective effects, vital signs, cognitive/psychomotor performance, and blood THC concentrations were assessed before, and then every 30 min for 8 h post ingestion. The 10 mg THC dose produced subjective drug effects and elevated heart rate but did not impact cognitive/psychomotor performance.

There is no universal standard dosage of CBD oil because how it impacts you will largely depend on a variety of factors such as the delivery method and your metabolism. In order to better understand how much CBD oil to take, you can check out our dosage guide here. Again, it’s essential to consult your doctor before you begin using CBD oil. If you’re facing a medical emergency, call your local emergency services immediately, or visit the nearest emergency room or urgent care center.

Your general practitioner and your medical specialist are best placed to select the most appropriate product for your medical condition. No, there is no change to Commonwealth or Western Australian laws around cultivation for recreational use. The recent changes to Commonwealth laws are not designed to permit the personal or home cultivation of cannabis for use in medical conditions. The changes do not legalise the growing of cannabis for non-medical purposes.

Sure, cannabis has been used for thousands of years but it’s only now that we’re beginning to understand the true therapeutic synergy of the compounds of which it’s comprised. In order to stay up-to-date with these consistent changes, companies must employ the latest research to offer the highest-quality products they possibly can. Their hemp geneticist also has four co-patents on their unique extraction process. Alex Chwaiewsky not only fought the Canadian Government to legalize industrial hemp and won, but also co-founded Manitoba Harvest, a company that sells hemp hearts at Costco that sold for $132.5 million. Because their CBD products are truly some of the highest quality you can find.

Another condition that has been linked to tobacco usage and not to cannabis consumption is heart disease. Lastly, just the use of marijuana to manage treatment related side effects is becoming more and more common in cancer patients. There’s a limited amount of data for efficacy and safety in transplant patients. I mean, cancer patients in general, but especially in transplant patients. Continued research really is essential for the understanding of where marijuana fits in the treatment of patients with cancer and post-transplant. I think over the last couple of years I’ve seen a real resurgence in looking at these products and understanding them more fully.

CBD also contains other ingredients that are great for your skin, such as vitamin E, which helps nourish and protect your skin. Conventional medical treatments were not helping Katelyn so the family, desperate for help, turned to medical cannabis. Medical cannabis has been shown to be one of the few therapies that mitigates the condition, and cannabis derived from hemp gave Katelyn substantial relief. Pain diagnoses, comorbidities, type of opioid, opioid dose and CBD dose also varied among the participants.

The biggest difference between THC-O and these other alternative THC compounds is that it’s actually more potent than delta 9 – at least 3x, to be exact, making it powerfully psychoactive. We often get the question, “Can I order cbd with THC online? Halso has been selling CBD with THC online since 2018 with the full spectrum products being our most popular range. If you want to use THC-O products, you should follow the manufacturer’s instructions. Silver Stem even offers a very special strain for those who prefer smoking – Incredible Power.

The risk of confirmation and response biases during interviews cannot be ignored. The process of oxidation, which occurs naturally in the body when cells get oxygen, releases free radicals, which are mutated molecules that have become unstable due to exposure to oxygen, into the body. The less oxygen there is in the body, the more free radicals are created. In this way, we rely less on our medical care determinant which cannot only take a toll on our health, but also in our wallets too. It’s easy to have a healthy lifestyle as long as you know how to maintain your self control and discipline. However, what people don’t know is that there is a fifth pillar that acts as a support when one of these four pillars becomes weak.

I used a vaporizer device to smoke weed without my husband the other night. He borrowed the device and was given the pot by a friend who used it during chemotherapy. My husband smoked recreationally as where can you buy cbd oil in uk a youngster and found it helped with stress and insomnia. These have been issues lately so he reached out to his friend. I thought it wasn’t normal but i guess it’s rare to have it go to that extreme?

Our online store provides quite a lot of high-high quality and pure CBD extract oil merchandise. Full-spectrum CBD merchandise also contain a range of supporting terpenes, cannabinoids, and phytochemicals. Full-spectrum CBD oils make use of the synergistic nature of the compounds discovered in the hemp plant, to provide a nicely-rounded, holistic effect.

However, we found that under milder conditions, you can also get a good transfer of cannabinoids. Well, these are technical problems, and technical problems generally have technical answers. Again, our Cannabis has not necessarily been designed for direct use as an herbal medicament, although certainly it is amenable Does Delta 8 THC Show Up On a Drug Test? to that use, should the demand arise. So, what we have done is, through a careful process of selective breeding, we have gotten plants that essentially contain a single component, which by natural product standards, is somewhat extraordinary. Now, I am using the term single component in a very loose way.

It’s interesting, these are supposed to be CBD products only, and in these products, there was THC detected in 21 of these samples. What we’ve seen anecdotally in my patient population is, again, it’s that mixed result. Patients come in, they try it, we deem it safe, they try it, some people get benefits some people don’t. I think there’s probably more data that we need about how people metabolize these drugs to determine if they really are going to benefit.

Congress is also working to expand access to cannabis for researchers. In December 2020, the House of Representatives passed H.R. In addition to requiring the DEA to license more federal cannabis suppliers, the bill would also allow authorized research scientists to access cannabis products from state-approved growers and manufacturers. For decades, the legal status of cannabis has hampered research focused on the physiological effects of the plant and its molecular components.

I had less hits of the bong, but had still taken my other medicine (i’m stupid). It was a little less harsh than what had happened before, luckily I was at my home this time so I just cuddled up on the couch an tried to focus on the TV. Still pretty scary though, wouldn’t recommend it to anyone. Thank god people understood what I went through, it was my first time smoking in about 2 months after getting caught up in school and then drug testing me. Me and my friends picked up only a G and we rolled it up, we then walked to the woods and it was very cold.

The usual CBD formulation is oil, but CBD is also sold as an extract, a vaporized liquid and an oil-based capsule. Food, drinks and beauty products are among the many CBD-infused products available online. A prescription cannabidiol oil is considered an effective anti-seizure medication. However, further research is needed to determine CBD’s other benefits and safety.

When she’s not reading or writing, she enjoys working out, sketching, and playing with her daughter and mini-dachshund, Goliath. As recent as 2015, studied on the medicinal benefits of Phellandrene showed it has the ability to treat depression and intense pain. There are a large number of terpenes found in the cannabis plant, and Pinene is one of the most researched and well-studied terpenes. The benefits of Myrcene in cannabis is its sedative effect that treats sleep apnea and doubles as a muscle relaxant. When there is a perfect synchronization in the language of all – the breeders, seller, and the patients – it becomes very easy to understand for the patients what medicine they are opting for in advance.

Some Sadhus, a Hindu holy person, believe Lord Shiva encouraged the use of cannabis. A recent survey in Nepal during a Shiva festival revealed that most Sadhus are daily users of cannabis and a third promoted the use of cannabis for Hindus. With lack of consistency, regulation, or pure genetics, it’s not possible for strain names to accurately depict genetics across the board. Cannabis morphology can vary from each grow cycle; two clones from the same mother, grown with different practices, in different environments, can produce phenotype and phytochemical variances. Scientific debate surrounds cannabis species and subspecies lineage. Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants within the Cannabaceae family.

While hemp plant is grown without pesticides and the plant has a long root system that helps to regenerate healthy soil. Adding hemp oil to your dog’s diet can help prevent them from these diseases. The fatty acids are needed for growth and repair and they are also used to make other fatty acids. Oxidative stress might play a role in carcinogenesis, as well as impacting the illness and death of veterinary cancer patients. Dogs with lymphoma have increased oxidant concentrations compared with healthy controls and that abnormalities normalize once reduction is achieved. The best and most effective way hemp oil is through a dropper that comes as a package potion.

The ACS team continues to grow as the scope of our services expand to meet the ever changing needs of the cannabis and CBD industry. Our in house dedicated scientific team is continuously developing new technology, refining current methods, procedures and protocols. ACS’s 20,000 square foot facts that make you realize cbd is among the aid to treat acne state of the art laboratory is located just south of Tampa, FL and is the focal point of quality, reproducible and dependable testing and reporting. Eating cannabis is the best way to get the most flavonoids. While smoking flower can activate the flavonoids, it can also burn them away.

Today, it is used to manage symptoms of medical conditions such as seizures in epileptic patients, pain, inflammation, stress and anxiety, insomnia and other sleep disorders, skin disorders, among others. Unlike THC, which is the other prominent cannabinoid, CBD does not cause any psychoactive effects when consumed. But should you’re seeking to increase your physique’s capability to soak up the oil and experience the powerful advantages of cannabinoids, think about the liposomal supply methodology for optimum results. This is because it does embody the entire cannabinoids, including CBD, and has a unique set of advantages than hemp oil. If you want to reap the benefits of utilizing CBD, you need to give attention to products that use hemp extract.

Terpenes are considered to be the most basic element on which the entire complicated structure of phytohormones , colour, sterols , and cannabinoids is formulated. But the importance of these positive effects, in the field of medicine, is not studied to its fullest. All the above results confirmed that not all the therapeutic actions of cannabis herb are due to the THC content. This proved that some of the cannabis actions did not regulate THC activities. Hence, some of the actions of cannabis like anti-spasticity, which were due to THC as one single constituent was because of the presence of other components.

The cannabis plant is easy to recognise from its little hairs. The tips of these specialized plant hairs secrete a certain liquid that is chock-full of active compounds called cannabinoids, which are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. Today, some of the most well-known cannabinoids are tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol . The former is known for its psychoactive properties and is often used for recreational properties.

I’m sorry to hear about your son, that must be really scary for both of you. You might find this article on feeling ‘stuck’ in a high useful. I also really strongly recommend that you visit your medical practitioner with your son and explain what has happened. People experiencing these effects sometimes have underlying or undiagnosed issues that are triggered by cannabis use, and short-term therapeutic help can make a positive difference.

More considerably, decarboxylation prompts any and all tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol discovered within the hashish plant. Many mono and sesquiterpenes are unstable and may evaporate at larger temperatures, leaving potentially undesirable flavors and aromas behind. The integrity of every cannabinoids and terpenoids are compromised by utilizing temperatures that exceed 300 ranges F, which is why temperatures inside the 200’s are actually useful. Consult 10 distinction sources and likewise you’ll discover 10 utterly different methods for recommendations on the way to decarboxylate your marijuana. Hey Dave, I’m not going acquainted with that methodology as I’ve always decarbed inside of an oven.

Pharmaceutical preparations, such as a tablet, capsule or spray, mean the concentration can be standardised and the dose controlled. Barry believed that Ecofibre’s combination of refining technology and specially bred hemp strains could be the start of a lucrative Australian industry, so in 2015, he invested in the company. Women with metastatic gynecological cancers have limited treatment options. The 5-year survival rate of many gynecological cancers is lower than other solid cancers and has not significantly improved in the last 20 years. We are excited about these initial results and now developing strong scientific rationale for the clinical application of CBD for various gynaecological disorders.” The groundbreaking results from this clinical study using patient-derived organoids have led to four patent filings.